AWS is not a single service - it's a framework that consists of over 70 different components that together make up the AWS infrastructure. Here is a brief overview of the crucial components:
EC2 stands for Elastic Compute Cloud and is the virtual machine started on the AWS virtualization layer. It is the OS (operation system) that carries your store. In the AWS Cloud, you are not tied to a specific operating system, but we firmly believe in the performance, stability, and reliability of Linux (to be more specific, Debian OS). Our high-performance software stack is built upon the EC2 instance.
S3 stands for Simple Storage Service and is a distributed, high-speed, web-based object storage engine with very low latency. S3 is used to store any kind of static content. Because it's very cost-effective (you only pay for the actual dataset.), S3 lets you store all sorts of data for a specific AWS region. It is used to store backups of your online store or to upload product images and videos.
AWS offers a highly available DNS managed service called Route53. The name comes from the port used for DNS services. AWS backs this service with a 100% SLA. This means that the service is guaranteed to be up at all times, which is a very rare thing to find in the information technology industry. Furthermore, Route53 is protected against DDoS attacks, highly available and distributed worldwide. DNS servers are used to map IP addresses to domain names and are the backbone of what allows you to resolve www.yourstore.com into an IP address.
CloudFront is a low-latency Content Delivery Network (CDN) platform that allows you to deliver any content from the nearest data center. No matter where your customer is located, he will receive the cached data very quickly when using CloudFront. CloudFront is a highly available service that is optimally protected against DDoS attacks with intelligent detection mechanisms and can hold entire web pages in its cache. A CDN is an excellent way to quickly make content available worldwide.
Auto Scaling is the means to free you from buying extra hardware and the need to be able to predict and deploy servers to big traffic spikes. It's the technology that makes AWS so flexible: You can scale to meet short-term needs and scale back when that need has been met.
Amazon RDS is the database service in the AWS Cloud. It enables the creation and scaling of redundant database clusters. The service is characterized by fast performance, high availability and high security standards. AWS RDS offers multiple instance types that are optimized for performance and I/O operations.
VPC, which stands for Virtual Private Cloud, is the AWS network layer that lets you create public or private subnets and set routing rules. It gives you the ability to separate your traffic from other cloud traffic and hide resources behind secured networks.
Amazon ElastiCache provides complete management for Redis and Memcached. Popular open source compatible in-memory datastores can be seamlessly deployed, operated and scaled.
Elastic Load Balancing (ELB) automatically distributes incoming traffic to multiple EC2 instances to provide a highly available infrastructure. It is often used in conjunction with AWS Auto Scaling.
EBS (Elastic Block Store) provides persistent block storage volumes for AWS EC2 instances. Each Amazon EBS volume is automatically replicated to its availability zone to provide protection in the event of a component failure and to ensure high availability and consistency.
Amazon CloudWatch is a monitoring service for AWS cloud resources. It can be used to collect metrics, collect and monitor log files, set alerts, and automatically respond to changes in AWS resources.